Thursday, April 30, 2015

How did Chinese look at Mount Fuji in Edo Japan?

Only very few Chinese had chance to see Mount Fuji during the Edo period. Yinyuan was one of them. Another less known Chinese also saw Mount Fuji and even painted a picture. His name is Fang Ji 方濟, zi Xiyuan 西園. He was the associate shipmaster of the Chinese ship Yuanshun 元順 from Nanjing. The ship was drifted to Chikura千倉町 (in Chiba) in 1780 and Fang Ji saw Mount Fuji when he was escorted back to Nagasaki . It turned out that Fang was a well educated painter. This is perhaps the only Mount Fuji painting done by a Chinese. I included it in my book Leaving for the Rising Sun, p. 161.

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

会議レポート:漢文仏教大蔵経第三回国際会議 (Japanese Version)

Conference site: Gordon B. Hinckley Alumni and Visitors Center at BYU

The following report is the Japanese translation of an English report which is going to be published in the 2015 May issue of Association of Asian Studies Newsletter.




大蔵経はどのように新しい近代の仏教聖典フォームの作成に影響を与えたのかと大蔵経がどのように成長している仏教のコミュニティに合わせているのか、参加者の間で大蔵経の議論範囲はさらに広がっていました。 また、新しい「仏教聖典」と《高麗蔵》経板の儀式は大蔵経が現代世界のニーズに合わせるために再発明をしたことも証明されました。同時に現代以前の聖典との接続が維持されていることも証明されました。このため、仏教大蔵経はもはや時代遅れのテキスト(文書)のセットではありません。むしろ一種の生きている聖典伝統として、人間社会との関係を発見するために調査する必要がある一方、ソースとしてほかの伝統的な大蔵経と比較する役割も果たしています。

この会議は主催者グレッグ·ウィルキンソン(Greg Wilkinsonブリガム·ヤング大学)と呉Jiang Wu アリゾナ大学)の努力がなければ行われていることができませんでした。また、ロバート·M·ジメロ(Robert M. Gimelloノートルダム大学)は会議の討論を務めました。それにルイスラ·ンカスター(Lewis Lancasterカリフォルニア大学バークレー校)は呉教授の基調演説に応じて洞察がある発表を提供しました。最後に、会議で自分の学術成果を発表した以下それぞれの学者の貢献がなければこの会議は成功できませんでした。彼らはグレゴリーアダム·スコット(Gregory Adam Scottエジンバラ大学)、祖暁敏(Jessica Zu プリンストン大学)、龍達瑞(Darui Long西来大学)、リチャード·マクブライド(Richard McBride BYUハワイ)、趙恩秀(Eun-Su Choソウル大学)、チャールズ·B·ジョーンズ(Charles B. Jonesアメリカのカトリック大学)、アルバートウェルター(Albert Welterアリゾナ大学)、ニコラス·フレデリック(Nicholas Frederick BYU)、ジェリー·平野(Jerry Hirano米国仏教団)、およびターニャシュトルヒ(Tanya Storchパシフィック大学)です。

最後に、会議の主催者は以下の支援組織からの寛大な支援に感謝の意を表しました。宗教アウトリーチのBYU宗教教育/宗教研究センター/オフィス、アリゾナ大学東アジア研究学部、BYUケネディセンターのアジア研究プログラム、BYU大学人文科学 、BYU大学家族、家庭、社会科、宗教理解のBYUリチャード·エバンス チェアBYUのアジアや近東言語学科と武康東ア​​ジア研究基金(アリゾナ大学)が会議の各支援組織です。

続いては、間もなく前の会議からの論文が文書化されます。『法:漢文仏教大蔵経の形成と変容』(Spreading Buddha's Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon コロンビア大学出版社、2016年)として公開されます。さらに、二冊目の文書では、この最近の会議成果の提出が計画されています 。をご覧いただくか、または、buddhistcanonconference@gmail.comに連絡することで詳細を問い合わせることができます。

Monday, April 27, 2015

Conference Report on the Third International Conference on the Chinese Buddhist Canon (English version)

Magnificent Y Mountain at BYU

 The following conference report is going to appear in the May issue of Association of Asian Studies Newsletter.

Conference Report: “The Buddhist Canon in Modern East Asia: the Third International Conference on the Chinese Buddhist Canon”

Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, April 9th-10th 2015

            Unexpectedly placed in Provo, Utah, the Third Buddhist Canon Conference was finalization of Prof. Jiang Wu’s claim of having three Buddhist Canon conferences during the first conference back in 2011.  With the splendid mountain scenery in the background, Brent L. Top, Dean of Religious Education at BYU, initiated the proceedings with a welcome address to all the scholars present who came from across the globe to speak about the Buddhist canon.  Being the final conference, the theme of the conference was appropriately the effect of the Buddhist canon on Modern East Asia, showing the timeless presence of the Buddhist canon and the effect of the Buddhist canon across all facets of human society.

            From a socio-political view, participants presented papers on how the Buddhist canon in modern times has acted as a means for social progress, legitimization of a new dynastic government, and value as an economic commodity. In the realm of foreign policy, the Buddhist canon was used as a diplomatic tool to solve disputes and foster cooperative international relations.  Through these diplomatic channels, we see the appearance of the first Chinese canon to reach Europe thanks to diplomatic efforts between Japan and Britain during the latter part of the 19th century.  These explorations of the Buddhist canon commenced discussions on the Buddhist canon that goes beyond words that are simply written down and printed. 

            The scope of the canon is broadened even further as participants discussed how the canon inspired the creation of new modern forms of Buddhist texts and canons to suit the needs of growing Buddhist communities.  Starting off with discussions on new Buddhist canons, participants examined the formulation of early Zen and Pure Land Buddhist canons.  Moreover, the proliferation of new “Buddhist Bibles” and Korean woodblock rituals evidenced the canon’s reinvention to suit the needs of a modern world while maintaining a connection to pre-modern texts.  From this, the Buddhist canon no longer became a set of antiquated texts, but a living textual tradition that needs to be investigated to discover the canon’s connection to human society as well as a source of comparison with other canonical traditions.

            The conference could not have been so well conducted without the tedious efforts of the conference organizers Greg Wilkinson (Brigham Young University) and Jiang Wu (University of Arizona).  Furthermore, the conference is indebted to Robert M. Gimello (Notre Dame University), who acted as the discussant for the conference, and Lewis Lancaster (University of California at Berkeley), who provided his insight in response to Dr. Jiang Wu’s keynote speech.  Finally the conference would not have been possible without the written contributions of those who presented their academic insight: Gregory Adam Scott (University of Edinburgh), Jessica Xiaomin Zu (Princeton University), Darui Long (University of the West), Richard McBride (BYU Hawaii), Eun-Su Cho (Seoul National University), Charles B. Jones (Catholic University of America), Albert Welter (University of Arizona), Nicholas Frederick (BYU), Jerry Hirano (Buddhist Churches of America), and Tanya Storch (University of the Pacific).

            Lastly, conference organizers would like to thank the generous support from various sponsoring organizations: BYU Religious Education/Religious Studies Center/Office of Religious Outreach, University of Arizona Department of East Asian Studies, BYU Kennedy Center’s Asian Studies Program, BYU College of Humanities, BYU College of Family, Home, and Social Studies, BYU Richard L. Evans Chair of Religious Understanding, BYU Department of Asian and Near Eastern Languages, and Su Wukang East Asian Research Fund (University of Arizona).

            Following the soon to be released volume of papers from previous conferences, Spreading Buddha’s Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon (Columbia University Press, 2016), a second volume is being planned to exhibit the proceedings of this most recent conference.  For further information, please visit or contact

(Dustin Natte, Department of East Asian Studies, The University of Arizona)

Friday, April 24, 2015

Mapping Yinyuan's travel in Edo Japan.

Reconstructed Itineraries of Yinyuan's Travels in Edo Japan © Jiang Wu
Yinyuan had two major travels in Japan. The 1655 trip starts from Nagasaki and ends in Fumonji 普门寺 at Tonda 富田. It was during this trip than he met the 1655 Korean embassy in Osaka. The second one in 1658 starts from Fumonji and ends at Edo Castle. He was summoned by the shogun and councilors. Both trips are significant to his success in Japan. I created this map based on his itineraries, which were reconstructed from his many poems and chronological biographies. I still use ArcView 3.2 and the base map was taken from Harvard CHGIS project. Oxford University Press redrew the map for me and a few mistakes were corrected. The final version is now in my book Leaving for the Rising Sun, page 116.

Monday, April 20, 2015

Buddhist canon conference report (Chinese version)

One of the benefits of having graduate students in the conference is to ask them to write conference report as homework. We will have English, Chinese, and Japanese versions. Here is the Chinese version by Ph.D student (Pekin University) Sun Guozhu. This one is published at 佛教在线


2015年04月17日 11:24:00 佛教在线
佛教在线海外讯 阳春有脚,万象更新,美国当地时间 2015年4月9日至10日,一场主题为“现代东亚视野下的佛教大藏经“(the  Buddhist Canon  in Modern East Asia)的学术研讨会,在犹他州普洛佛市杨伯翰大学(Brigham Young University, 以下简称BYU)顺利举行并圆满结束。此次研讨会由Greg Wilkinson 和吴疆教授共同组织策划,BYU宗教教育系主办,亚利桑那大学(以下简称UA)东亚系协办,由BYU宗教研究中心暨宗教推广办公室、BYU东亚研究肯尼迪中心项目、Richard L.Evans宗教理解讲座教席、BYU人文学院、BYU家庭与社会科学学院、 BYU亚洲与近东语言系、UA  苏武康 东亚研究基金共同赞助。
此次会议,收到了十一篇论文,爱丁堡大学(University of Edinburgh)的史瑞戈(Gregory Adam Scott)、普林斯顿大学的祖晓敏 (Jessica  Xiaomin Zu)、西来大学(University of West)的龙达瑞(Darui Long)、BYU夏威夷分校的Richard McBride、首尔国立大学(Seoul National University)的赵恩秀(Eun-Su Cho)、美国天主教大学(the Catholic University of American)的周文广(Charles B.Jones)、亚利桑那大学的魏雅博(Albert Welter)、杨伯翰大学的Greg Wilkinson和Nick Frederick、霍尼韦尔佛寺 (Honeyville Buddhist Temple) 的 Jerry Hirano、太平洋大学(University of the Pacific)的Tanya Storch, 亚利桑那大学的吴疆等专家学者分别做了精彩发言,每一场次由来自圣母大学(University of Notre Dame)的詹密罗(Robert  Gimello)教授点评。这些与会专家学者中有龙达瑞(Darui Long)、Tanya Storch等长期研究大藏经的专家,也有Jessica  Xiaomin Zu有志于研究大藏经的后起之秀,还有来自亚利桑那大学东亚系的五位研究生,预示着欧美学界大藏经研究方兴未艾、健康发展之势。各位专家学者论文或演讲的讨论内容,空间范围涵盖了中国、日本、韩国、美国、欧洲等国家和地区,充分展示了大藏经这一文本载体的复杂社会意涵和深厚文化底蕴;而丰富多彩的讨论题材,深刻体现了西方学界方法多元的学术特点。
除此之外,值得一提的是,此次大藏经会议在各位学者发表论文的间隙,于2015年4月9日上午11点至11点50还特意组织了三场小型讨论,第一组由周文广Charles B. Jones主持,以“美国基督教多元主义”为题;第二组圆桌讨论由Tanya Storch, 赵恩秀Eun-Su Cho以及祖晓敏(Jessica Xiaomin Zu)共同负责,以“妇女在亚洲暨宗教研究”为题;第三组由Carmela  Javellana Hirano主持,以佛教的心理辅导与教育为题。这些充满现实关怀的小组讨论主题吸引了众多听众的踊跃参与。 另外, 4月10日上午11点至12点,吴疆教授在Jesse Knight Building 2107报告厅做了“汉文佛教大藏经研究中若干关键问题 ”的主旨演讲,可以说是此次大藏经会议的点睛之笔。来自加州大学伯克利分校的前西来大学校长兰卡斯特(Lewis Lancaster)教授给予评议,充分肯定了吴疆教授的工作为学界前沿研究,具有重要的学术意义。
据悉,此次会议的组织者吴疆教授业已举办了两次大藏经会议,第一次在亚利桑那州图森 (2011),第二次在洛杉矶西来大学 (2013)。非常难得是,第一次会议论文最终由吴疆教授和加州大学河滨分校贾晋珠(Lucille Chia) 教授 共同编辑,以Spreading Buddha’s Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon(暂译为:《法宝东渐:汉文佛教大藏经的形成和演变》)为书名,将在2015年底由哥伦比亚大学出版社(Columbia University Press)出版,以飨广大业界同行,网上预售已经开始。其中的意义,诚如斯坦福大学(Stanford University )柯嘉豪(John kieschnick)教授所言,大藏经作为世界历史上影响深远的文本工程之一,该论文集的研究对于理解其文本和社会两者之间互动的历史做出了巨大贡献。
除此之外,大众也可以看到此次大藏经会议在美国多元文化社会中的价值和意义。在中国历史上,“西方”一直是个有趣的文化概念。 张骞凿空西域,玄奘西行取经。明末清初的方以智明确表示要“借远西为郯子”,近现代洋务运动代表人物张之洞更是主张“中体西用”。在全球化的今天,各大文明之间的互动交流显得尤其重要,对话与共生业已成为时代的主题。佛从西方来,然而终在中华大地生根发芽开花结果,佛教在中国的历史,就是冲突、融合、共生的过程。而汉文大藏经就是梵华交流的结晶,充分体现了中华文明共生复合的精神特征;大藏经,作为人类历史上重要的文本工程之一,在现代化信息条件下,获得了大放异彩的又一契机。而概览佛教在西方传播的历史,最初,佛教在欧美是异教徒的形象,而汉传佛教更是堕落退化了的印度佛教。随着全球一体化步伐的加快,佛教逐渐引起西方社会的普遍关注,开始获得对话的资格。现在,美国佛教的发展,在彼此对话的基础上又呈现出相互学习的特点,此次在杨伯翰大学所召开的大藏经会议就是极佳的证明。管中窥豹,可见一斑。此次大藏经会议,作为一面小小的镜子,不仅预示着佛教在西方世界能够健康成长,更能够为其他文明或宗教带来启示和借鉴意义,为世界文化的未来发展开启更多可能。(文:孙国柱)

Friday, April 17, 2015

Prof. Tsuen-hsuin (T.H.) Tsien 錢存訓 passed away at the age of 105

On my way back from Provo, I received the news from his daughter Mary that Prof. Tsuen-hsuin (T.H.) Tsien  錢存訓just passed away on the first day of our Buddhist canon conference in April 9, 2015. I don't know Professor Tsien in person but he had emailed me with encouraging words before our first conference in Tucson in March, 2011. He was 101 at that time. If possible, we would like to dedicate our conference volume to Prof. Tsien.

Obituary for Tsuen-hsuin (T.H.) Tsien (1909-2015) 

I am sending this on behalf of Prof. Edward L. Shaughnessy (University of Chicago), a long-time friend and colleague of Prof. Tsuen-hsuin (T.H.) Tsien

Tsuen-hsuin (T.H.) Tsien, Curator Emeritus of the East Asian Collection of the Joseph Regenstein Library and Professor Emeritus of Far Eastern Languages and Civilizations (now East Asian Languages and Civilizations) of the University of Chicago, passed away in Chicago yesterday, April 9, 2015, at the age of 105. T.H. lived a long and extraordinarily full life. He liked to say that he was born under the last emperor of China, in 1909, in Taixian, Jiangsu, China. In 1927, before entering university, he participated in the Northern Expedition, a military effort of the Nationalist government of China that resulted in the unification of China. In 1928, T.H. entered Jinling University (the precursor of Nanjing University), from which he was graduated in 1932 with a degree in Library Science. After graduation, he worked first in Shanghai at the Jiaotong University Library, and then in Nanjing at the Nanjing Branch of the Peking Library (the forerunner of the National Library of China). In December, 1941, he was personally responsible for shipping 300,000 rare books from the library to the United States Library of Congress for safe-keeping during the war; the books left the port of Shanghai, then still an open city, just days before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and made it safely to Washington. After the conclusion of the war, T.H. went to Washington to arrange for the return of the books. However, the outbreak of civil war in China made their return at the time impossible, and T.H. remained in America together with the books. In 1947, Herrlee G. Creel (1905-1994; Martin A. Ryerson Professor Emeritus of Chinese Studies at the University) invited T.H. to the University of Chicago to manage the Far Eastern Library (now East Asian Collection). T.H. remained in Chicago thereafter.
It is no exaggeration to say that T.H. Tsien was the most influential Chinese librarian in America. Not only did he develop one of the country’s greatest East Asian libraries at the University of Chicago, but he also trained a generation of students for East Asian libraries around the country including those who went on to head the East Asian libraries at Harvard and Princeton. In addition, his published scholarship continues to have a profound influence on the fields of Chinese bibliography, paleography, and science and technology. He received a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1957; his dissertation, published by the University of Chicago Press in 1962 as Written on Bamboo and Silk: The Beginnings of Chinese Books and Inscriptions, is still regarded as a classic in the field. In 1978, after retiring from his position as Curator of the East Asian Collection, T.H. accepted an invitation from Joseph Needham to participate in Needham’s great Science and Civilisation in China project. In 1984, T.H. contributed Vol. 5.1: Paper and Printing, the first volume in the series to be published under a name other than Needham’s. After this time, he remained active. In 2011, his book Collected Writings on Chinese Culture, was published by the Chinese University of Hong Kong Press. It includes thirty essays on “Ancient Documents and Artifacts,” “Paper, Ink, and Printing,” “Cultural Exchange and Librarianship,” “Biographies of Eminent Scholars,” “Memoir of a Centenarian,” and “Essays about the Author.” The volume also contains prefaces by Edward L. Shaughnessy and Anthony C. Yu, his colleagues at the University of Chicago, relating many more of his contributions to the University and to scholarship.
T.H. Tsien has now rejoined his beloved wife Wen-ching Hsu, who was one of the first instructors of Chinese at the University, and his eldest daughter Ginger, both of whom passed away in 2008. He is survived by two other daughters, Mary Tsien Dunkel and Gloria Tsien, as well as by his nephew Xiaowen Qian, Assistant to the Curator for the East Asian Collection of the Regenstein Library. He has established a legacy that will endure as long as scholars continue to value books.

Sunday, April 12, 2015

Special exhibition of Obaku Culture in Kyoto, April 22--May 31, 2015 黄檗山萬福寺文華殿春季特別展 4月22日(水) ~ 5月31日(日)

For those who are in Japan, this can be an excellent opportunity to learn about Obaku culture.

Follow the link at

第2文華殿オープン記念 ■■~ 新添資料と黄檗山の名宝展 ~


■ 会 期: 平成27年4月22日(水) ~ 5月31日(日)
■ 休館日: 毎週火曜日 ※5月5日は開館
■ 時 間: 9:30 ~ 17:00 ※入館受付は16:30まで
■ 入場料 ※入山料別途






‐ 京都報音舎協賛 ‐


Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Buddhist canon conference program

I am on my way to Provo, BYU. It is so excited to see the third conference becomes real. So many good papers which will make a good volume. The program is ready but Dr. Lew Lancaster's name has not yet been added. We are so glad he is able to make it.

Monday, April 6, 2015

Talk at OSU on Yinyuan

I forgot to announce the talk I just gave at OSU last Friday.

Reading Religion as Event History: Chinese Monks, the Pirate King, and Japanese Shoguns in Seventeenth-century East Asia

Presented by Jiang Wu, associate professor, Department of East Asian Studies, the University of Arizona (Tucson)

Abstract: Situated at the margin of East Asian political history, religion rarely shaped the course of history as significant events. However, when religion did intersect with the secular power, it is difficult for scholars to fully understand its meaning. In this talk, Dr. Jiang Wu examines the historical events leading to the 1661 founding of Manpukuji 萬福寺in Japan by the Chinese Zen master Yinyuan Longqi 隱元隆琦(15921673), whose life was involved with Zheng Chenggong’s 鄭成功resistance movement in Southeast China and the shogunal politics in early Edo Japan. In addition, he will reflect upon the methodological issues for interpreting religious events in East Asian history.

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Tetsugen Doko's Obaku Canon Catalog

I often use inter-library loans. Some libraries checked rare books to me. University of California at Los Angeles recently sent me a collated catalog of the Northern Ming Canon and marked as compiled by Testugen Doko 鐵眼道光. There is no Tetsugen's name in it. I thought it should be part of the Obaku Tetsugen canon, but it was actually collected with the Tenkai 天海 edition of movable-type canon. It was originally the collection of Daimokusan 大黑山. Still not clear about its history.