Sunday, April 15, 2018

Calligraphy of Muan (1611 - 1684)木菴性瑫 at Philadelphia Museum of Art|2

Original Patriarch Daruma Daishi

Mokuan Shōtō, Chinese, 1611 - 1684

Made in Japan, Asia
Edo Period (1615-1868)
Mid- 17th century
Ink on paper, mounted as a hanging scroll
Exclusive of mount: 55 × 11 1/2 inches (139.7 × 29.2 cm)
Curatorial Department:
East Asian Art
Object Location:
Currently not on view

Accession Number:
Credit Line:
Purchased with funds donated by Andrea M. Baldeck, M.D., and William M. Hollis, Jr., 2008

Mokuan was the second patriarch of the Japanese Obaku Zen sect, which still has its headquarters at Mampuku-ji, a Chinese-style temple located at Uji, near Kyoto. He emigrated to Japan from Fukien, China in 1655. The following year he assisted the first patriarch, Ingen (1592 - 1673) in founding Mampuku-ji, and Mokuan became the second abbot in 1664.

The six characters inscribed on this hanging scroll translate to "the first patriarch Daruma." This is a reference to the founder of Zen Buddhism in India, whose name is pronounced "Daruma" in Japanese. Mokuan may have also meant this phrase to serve as an homage to Ingen (as the first patriarch of the Obaku sect in Japan).

Mokuan was renowned during his lifetime for his outstanding calligraphy, with its strong, thick brushstrokes and subtle gradations of ink. As in this one line calligraphy, the even spacing and rounded characters have a powerful yet elegant effect, balanced by the wiry, angular signature at the left.

Tuesday, April 3, 2018

Article on Yinyuan's Seals

An article was published in a recent issue of Religions in China. Details are not known about the author and the article.

  • 佛心禅境 高僧隐元的墨迹用印
  • Author / Creator:马旭明
  • Summary:隐元印章的篆法雕刻、印文排列,完全是明末清初时期的风格气息,从印面看篆刻刀法工整,章法对称平直而合乎法度,印文多作小篆,或以小篆掺和大篆。一明末禅宗盛极一时,著作丰富,人才辈出。临济宗一脉以机锋凌厉而著称,黄檗宗出临济而发扬光大。隐元禅师(1592-1673)名隆琦,俗姓林,法号"隐元",福建福清人,明末清初福建黄檗山万福寺高僧。 
  • Subject: 黄檗山万福寺 黄檗宗 印文 隆琦 临济 篆法 佛心 印面 福建福清
  • Is Part Of:中国宗教 - Religions In China, 2017, Issue 07, pp.72-73 

  • Source:维普数据 (Chongqing VIP Information Co.)

Saturday, March 24, 2018

Conference: Creating the World of Chan/ Sŏn /Zen: Chinese Chan Buddhism and its Spread throughout East Asia March 28-31, University of Arizona

Please allow me to announce the following conference: 

Creating the World of Chan/ Sŏn /Zen: Chinese Chan Buddhism and its Spread throughout East Asia
March 28-31, 2018, University of Arizona
禅的世界的创建: 中国禅宗及其传播

Sponsors: American Council of Learned Societies (Chiang Ching-Kuo Foundation)
Fo Guang University
Chung Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Sheng Yen Educational Foundation
Hosted by Department of East Asian Studies & Center for Buddhist Studies
赞助单位:美国学术协会理事会 (蒋经国基金会)

March 28 (Wednesday)
5:00–8:00 (Poetry Center)
Center for Buddhist Studies Inaugural Ceremony

Khyentse Foundation Lecture # 1, Master Guangquan (Lingyin Monastery, Hangzhou):
“Telling the Story of Chinese Buddhism: Promoting exchange and mutual learning among civilizations”

3月28日 (星期三)
5:00–8:00 (Poetry Center 诗歌中心)
钦哲基金会演讲# 1: 光泉大和尚 (杭州灵隐寺)
“讲好中国佛教故事 推动多元文明交流互鉴”

March 29 (Thursday)
9:00-11:15 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
Session # 1: Foundations of Chan/Sŏn/Zen Buddhism: Geographical, Intellectual & Theoretical Considerations
3月29日 (星期四)
9:00-11:15 (Old Main 老主楼, Silver & Sage)
第一部会: 禅宗的基础: 地理,文化思想和理论的考量

• Shūdō Ishii 石井修道 (Professor Emeritus of Komazawa University 駒澤大學荣誉教授), “An Intellectual History of Kōan: An Initial Study” ,“公案的文化思想史: 初期研究”
• John Jorgensen (LaTrobe University 乐卓博大学), “The Spread of Buddhism as Glimpsed Through the Lens of Language”,“从语言的视角看佛教的传播”
• Master Guangquan 光泉大和尚 (Lingyin Monastery, Hangzhou 杭州灵隐寺), “On the spread of Buddhism in the Southern Song Dynasty: Focusing on Hangzhou” ,“试论南宋时期的佛教传播: 以杭州为中心”
• Albert Welter 魏雅博 (University of Arizona 亚利桑那大学), “Repositioning Chan/ Sŏn/ Zen Buddhist Studies: The Hangzhou Region and the Spread of East Asian Buddhism” “重新定位禅宗的佛教研究: 杭州地区与东亚佛教的传播”

Lunch 11:15-12:15
午餐 11:15-12:15

12:15–3:00 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
Session # 2: Song Dynasty Chan and its Influences

12:15–3:00 (Old Main 老主楼, Silver & Sage)
第二部会 宋代禅宗及其影响

• Guodong Feng 冯国栋 (Zhejiang University 浙江大学), “Buddhist Immigration in Song Dynasty” , “宋代佛教移民”
• George Keyworth (University of Saskatchewan 加拿大沙斯喀彻温大学), “The Lute, Lyric Poetry, and Literary Arts in Chinese Chan and Japanese Zen Buddhism”,“中国及日本禅中的琵琶、歌诗与文学艺术”
• Jason Protas (Brown University), “Challenges to Conceptions of Song Dynasty Wenzi Chan” (布朗大学),“对宋代文字禅观念的挑战”
• Yi-hsun Huang 黃繹勳 (Fo Guang University), “Chan Isn’t Just Meditation: The Role of Zhizheng zhuan 智證傳 in Chan Buddhism” (佛光大学),“禅不止禅定:《智證傳》在禅宗中的作用”
• Gaoxing Qiu 邱高兴 (China Jiliang University), “Relationship between Dahui Zonggao and monks & layman from the perspective of social network” (中国计量大学),“社交视角下的大慧宗杲与僧侣及信徒关系”

Break 3:00-3:15
小憩 3:00-3:15

3:15–5:00 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
Session # 3: Chinese Chan Dynamics
3:15–5:00 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
第三部会: 中国禅的动态研究

• Jiang Wu 吴疆 (University of Arizona), “Performing Authenticity: Li Zhi 李贄 (1527-1602), Chan Buddhism, and the Rise of Textual Spirituality ” (亚利桑那大学) “表演中的‘本真’:李贽(1527-1602),禅宗与文字境界的兴起”
• Chen-kuo Lin 林镇国 (National Chengchi University), “How a Chan Buddhist copes with the method of hetū-vidyā? – A case study of Miyun Yuanwu (1566-1642) in the debate on the Thesis on No-Motion of Things” (国立政治大学): 禅僧如何运用因明?-密云圆悟(1566-1642) 的《物不迁论》诤论的案例研究
• Ken Hollaway (Florida Atlantic University), “Searching for Zen Roots: from Guodian to Vimalakirti” (佛罗里达大西洋大学),“寻找禅宗根源:从郭店到维摩诘”

Conference Welcome Dinner 6:00

March 30 (Friday)
9:00–12:30 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
Session # 4: Transmissions to Korea & Japan and Beyond
3月30日 (星期五)
9:00-11:15 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
第四部会: 中国禅在韩国、日本及其它国家的传播研究

• Morten Schlütter (University of Iowa), “The Transmission of the Platform Sūtra to Korea and Japan” ( 爱荷华大学),“坛经在韩国和日本的传播研究”
• Juhn Ahn (University of Michigan), “The Origins of the Public Chan or Sŏn Monastery in Korea: The Monk Tamjin and his Impact on Sŏn Buddhism” (密歇根大学),“韩国禅宗丛林的起源:曇真对韩国禅宗的影响 ”
• Steven Heine (Florida International University), “Yuanwu Keqin’s Chinese Chan Influence on the Formation of Early Japanese Zen” (佛罗里达国际大学),“圆悟克勤的中国禅对早起日本禅的形成的影响”
• Steffen Döll (Hamburg University), “A Single Golden Dragon up my Sleeve: Chinese Emigrant Masters in Japan, 1246–1317” 德国汉堡大学, “金龙出袖:1246至1317年在日本的中国高僧们”
• Sungwook Kim (Columbia University), “From Center to Peripheries: Encounter Between Sŏn Buddhism and Popular Religions in Late Chosŏn Korea” (哥伦比亚大学), “从中心到外围:朝鲜晚期禅佛教与民间宗教的相遇”
• Kirill Solonin (Renmin University), “Hongzhou Chan in the Tangut texts” (人民大学), “西夏文本中的洪州禅”

Lunch 12:30–1:30

1:30–4:00 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
Session # 5: Modern Transformations of Chan/Sŏn/Zen
1:30–4:00 (Old Main, Silver & Sage)
第五部会: 当代禅宗的转型

• Eric Goodell (Fo Guang University), “Taixu’s History of the Chan Tradition” (佛光大学),“太虚的禅的历史”
• Jin Y. Park (American University), “Decoding History: Nuns in Korean Sŏn Buddhism” (美利坚大学), “解密历史: 韩国禅佛教中的比丘尼研究”
• Bernard Senécal (Sogang University), “The Struggle of Chogyejong to Define its Identity as a Meditative School in Contemporary Korea” (韩国西江大学), “当代韩国曹溪宗对禅宗身份认同的困境”
• James Mark Shields (Bucknell University), “Chan Influence on Japanese Buddhist Progressives of Late Meiji” (巴克内尔大学), “禅对日本明治后期佛教改革的影响”

6:00-7:30 (Poetry Center):

Khyentse Foundation Lecture # 2, Robert E. Buswell, Jr. (University of California, Los Angeles –– UCLA)
“Is Zen “Enlightenment” Sudden or Gradual?: Insights from the Korean Buddhist Tradition”
钦哲基金会演讲# 2,Robert E. Buswell, Jr. (加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校)

March 31 (Saturday): 9:00-10:30 (La Quinta Hotel conference room)
Session # 6: Conference Wrap up
March 31 (Saturday) 11:00, depart from La Quinta Hotel for Tucson area tour
March 31 (Saturday) 5:00, Dinner

April 1 (Sunday) depart

3月31日(星期六):9:00-10:30 (拉昆塔酒店会议室)
第六部会: 会议总结
3月31日(星期六)11:00 图森观光
3月31日(星期六)5:00, 晚餐


Thursday, March 15, 2018

Review of Reinventing the Tripitaka by Marcus Bingenheimer

The following review is copied from

Reinventing the Tripitaka

Transformation of the Buddhist Canon in Modern East Asia

Editor(s): Jiang Wu, Greg Wilkinson

Lanham, MD: 

  • Rowman & Littlefield
    , September
     268 pages.
     For other formats: Link to Publisher's Website.


Reinventing the Tripitaka is the second volume on the history of the Buddhist canon in East Asia to appear in English in recent years. Like Spreading Buddha’s Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon (Jiang Wu & Lucille Chia, eds., Columbia University Press, 2016), Reinventing the Tripitaka is the result of a series of conferences organized by Jiang Wu, which were dedicated to the history of the Buddhist canon in East Asia. While Spreading Buddha’s Word mostly focuses on pre-modern editions, the essays collected in Reinventing the Tripitaka are about the modern history of the Buddhist canon, starting in the late 19th century and ending with two contributions on digital editions.
The contributions in this volume thus look both back and ahead, and are aptly dedicated to the late eminent historian Tsuen-hsuin Tsien and to the co-organizer of one of the first digital editions of the canon, the late Aming Tu.
The history of the Buddhist canon in East Asia is a densely researched topic in Japanese and Chinese Buddhist studies, but has attracted only very limited attention in English. The efforts of Jiang Wu and his collaborators have managed to close an irksome gap.
The essays in Reinventing the Tripitaka often use the term “Chinese Buddhist canon,” with the emphasis on “Chinese”—as in “written in Buddhist Classical Chinese,” not as in “made in China.” Thus, although the idea of a comprehensive canon (dazangjing 大藏經) including works by later authors originated in China, the seven contributions in this volume do range across East Asia and discuss the Buddhist canon in China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. After a helpful and comprehensive overview of the issues at stake in the modern formation of the canon, Jiang Wu and Greg Wilkinson have divided Reinventing the Tripitaka into three sections. The first section starts out with a study by Wu on how the first copy of the Chinese canon came to Europe. Wu explains how Samuel Beal was able to make a successful request for a Buddhist canon, which resulted in a copy of the Ōbaku edition arriving in London in 1875. This was the copy used by Nanjō Bun’yū (aka Nanjio Bunyiu) for the first Western catalog of the Chinese canon. Nanjō’s catalog (1883) to what we now know to be the Ōbaku canon became an indispensable tool for European Buddhist studies, until being replaced by a catalog to the Taishō edition: the Fascicule Annexe of the Hōbōgirin project (1931, rev. 1978).
In the second essay Greg Wilkinson and Nicolas Frederick report on Japanese attempts to create what they call “a Buddhist bible.” They attempt to argue that the efforts of (again) Nanjō Bun’yū and, somewhat later, Numata Yehan, to create a reader of Buddhist “sacred texts” (seiten 聖典) were a reaction to the role of the Bible in Christian evangelicalism. That these readers have been in part influenced by and modeled on the Bible is undisputed, but to call them “Buddhist bibles” seems a bad choice. Their compilers were fully aware of the differences between their selection and modern translations of Buddhist scriptures and the role of the Bible in Christianity as the unique, authoritative, and complete record of revelation. The term seiten, which has been used since the 3rd century, simply cannot mean “bible,” as it implies a plurality that is quite absent from the way the Bible has been perceived in the singular both as a book (“The Holy Scripture”) and regarding its function (sola scriptura) over many centuries. To my mind, Wilkinson and Frederick do not provide sufficient evidence that anybody in Japan thought of these texts as “bibles” rather than simply Buddhist readers, for which there is a long tradition within Buddhism. They are mistaken (on 53) about the presumed similarity of the “New Testament” and the “New Translation of Buddhist Scriptures.” The former is shinyaku seisho 新聖書 (lit. “Holy book of the New Covenant”) not the homophonous 新聖書 “New translation of Buddhist Scriptures.”
The second section features three essays on the production and use of modern editions of the canon. Tomoo Kida presents an account of Kōzui Ōtani’s acquisition of a Qing Dragon Canon in 1899. The history of a single copy of this edition that went from China to Japan makes for an interesting comparison with Wu’s account of the copy that Japan had sent to England some twenty-five years earlier. Gregory Adam Scott describes in fascinating detail the production of the little known Pinjia Canon, that was published in Shanghai in 1913. Based on his thorough knowledge of Buddhist publishing ventures in Republican China, Scott elucidates what went into the attempt to produce an affordable, modern Buddhist canon in early 20th century China. The essay by Richard D. McBride II combines fieldwork and historical research to show how the “ritual of bearing [the Buddhist canon] on one’s head” (jeongdae bulsa 頂戴佛事) has developed at Haein Monastery in Korea over the last fifty years. The essay is a valuable reminder that the ritual veneration of the canon is still alive in East Asia today.
The third section is dedicated to digital incarnations of the Buddhist canon in Chinese. In his essay, Christian Wittern, a long-standing contributor to the CBETA project and eminent expert in the digitization of the East Asian textual heritage, outlines the commonalities and differences of the three main projects that have produced digital versions of the Chinese canon. In the final essay Charles Muller,‎ Masahiro Shimoda,‎ and Kiyonori Nagasaki, the core team steering the SAT research platform, give a brief overview of the history of their efforts.
As an appendix, the editors have decided to translate a study by Guangchang Fang, the outstanding expert on Dunhuang Studies as well as the history of the manuscript canon, that was first published in 2006. In it Fang presents a “panoramic overview of the history of the Chinese Buddhist canon” (187). Fang’s essay is a welcome summary and would work well as introductory reading in a seminar.
The original and wide-ranging contributions in this volume are an important contribution to our understanding of the fate of the Buddhist textual heritage in modern East Asia.
About the Reviewer(s): 
Marcus Bingenheimer is Associate Professor in the Department of Religion at Temple University.
Date of Review: 
February 28, 2018
About the Author(s)/Editor(s)/Translator(s): 
Jiang Wu is professor of Chinese religion and thought in the department of East Asian Studies and director of the Center for Buddhist Studies at the University of Arizona.
Greg Wilkinson is assistant professor of religious education at Brigham Young University.

Saturday, March 10, 2018

Willem Grootaers Photos

I wrote a few posts about Willem Grootaers. Here are a couple of photos showing him and his research team (Li Shiyu 李世瑜, Wang Fushi 王辅世, and others) in the 1940s and 1990s. See the previous posts at "Willem A. Grootaers 賀登崧 (ウィレム・A・グロータース) ( 1911- 1999)" and "Galen Eugene Sargent's collection of Willem Grootaer's Articles." 

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

Yinyuan's Poems in Buddhist Literature 佛教文学中的隐元诗偈

Prof. Lin Guanchao 林观潮 at Xiamen University 厦门大学 is an expert in Yinyuan studies. He published an article on Master Yinyuan's poems entitled "Yinyuan's Poems in Buddhist Literature" 佛教文学中的隐元诗偈which can be downloaded from the following link.

The full citation of the article is as follows:

  • Author / Creator:
  • Summary:
  • 本稿尝试从佛教文学的视角,粗浅分析隐元语录中的诗偈。做为明清时期禅僧语录的代表作,隐元语录内含优秀的佛教文学作品。其中诗偈数量众多,内容多样,体裁完备。基于丰富的创作经验,隐元也提出了对诗偈的看法,并强调诗偈创作主体必须是学道有成的明心见性之人。 
  • Subject:
  • Is Part Of:
  • Linking notes:

    Tuesday, February 13, 2018

    New research on Obaku monk Jifei's Dharma Transmission Certificate Bestowed by Yinyuan

    A new article by Ma Xuming 马旭明 on Jifei's 即非 Dharma Transmission Certificate given by Yinyuan 隐元 has been published in China. The original 1657 certificate and a few letters were published in 蜗庐藏珍図录 by 天六书房 in Japan (page 20). (Unfortunately, there is no such a book and publisher in American cataloging system.) These materials were not included in Yinyuan's complete collections.

     The certificate is as follows and resembles the one Yinyuan received from Feiyin Tongrong 费隐通容:
    “从上承嗣来源 :六祖下、南岳让、马祖一、百丈海、黄檗运、临济玄、兴化奖、南院颙、 风穴沼、首山念、汾阳昭、石霜圆、杨岐会、白云端、五祖演、圆悟勤、虎丘隆、天童华、密庵杰、 破庵先、无准范、雪巗钦、高峰妙、中峰本、千岩长、万峰蔚、宝藏持、东明山、海舟慈、宝峰瑄、 天奇瑞、绝学聪、月心宝、禹门传、天童悟、径山容,明历丁酉年寓普门福元禅寺老僧隐元琦手书付即 非一禅人。”
    Here is the detailed bibliography of this article:

    马旭明. (2017). 1657年隐元禅师付即非源流手迹考释. 世界宗教文化, (02), 110-117.

    • 【機構】 無錫博物院;

      【摘要】 明末清初,黃檗宗高僧隱元隆琦在清順治十一年(1654)東渡日本,在日本政治文化中心京都創建"黃檗山萬福寺",開創日本佛教界的一大宗派——黃檗宗派,其影響遍及日本的禪學、文學、藝術、印刷、建筑乃至茶道和生活品味等各個方面,并成為17、18世紀當時日本文化的主流。1657年隱元禪師付即非源流及信件是一件不可多得的珍貴文獻,是研究隱元東渡初期活動的史料,具有重要的歷史價值,值得我們研究。 

      【關鍵詞】 隱元禪師; 即非; 手跡考釋;